A man walks past a house built with the proceeds from money sent by emigrants from Europe in Benin City.
A man walks past a house built with the proceeds from money sent by emigrants from Europe in Benin City.
Men work on a house being built with proceeds from money sent from Europe by emigrants, in Benin City, southern Nigeria, on March 29, 2017.  

Men work on a house being built with proceeds from money sent from Europe by emigrants, in Benin City, southern Nigeria, on March 29, 2017. 

Retired civil servant Sunday Otoide walks on a street overgrown with weeds as a result of floods.
Retired civil servant Sunday Otoide walks on a street overgrown with weeds as a result of floods.
Sunday Otoide and his wife Grace look at cell phone pictures of their children residing in Italy in their flood damaged compound in Benin City, capital of Edo State, southern Nigeria. Their  house is the last one standing on Bata Road. Pictures: Pius Utomi Ekpei/AFP
Sunday Otoide and his wife Grace look at cell phone pictures of their children residing in Italy in their flood damaged compound in Benin City, capital of Edo State, southern Nigeria. Their house is the last one standing on Bata Road. Pictures: Pius Utomi Ekpei/AFP
A Western Union money transfer outlet in a bank where beneficiaries collect money in foreign currencies.
A Western Union money transfer outlet in a bank where beneficiaries collect money in foreign currencies.
Sunday Otoide points to stagnant water in his courtyard as his wife Grace looks on in their flood damaged compound. All the neighbours have left and the couple hope to do the same.
Sunday Otoide points to stagnant water in his courtyard as his wife Grace looks on in their flood damaged compound. All the neighbours have left and the couple hope to do the same.

Grace and Sunday Otoide’s house is the last one standing on Bata Road in Benin City, southern Nigeria. All the neighbours have left and the retired couple hope to do the same.

With the money their two children send from Italy, they want to build a new house.

Dozens of lorries used to pass along the road to get to the local shoe factory, once one of Benin City’s industrial jewels. But it’s now no more than a track swallowed by swamps.

At the turn of the century, the leading shoe manufacturer that gave the road its name relocated its factory to Ghana, frustrated by constant power cuts.

About 3 000 employees, most of them young people, lost their jobs.

Since then, the flood barriers surrounding the area have fallen into disrepair and the water has reclaimed the earth, flooding every dwelling and the factory.

“We have no nothing. No chop (food), nothing,” says Grace seated on a large dilapidated sofa.

Her husband’s pension has also been hurt by the devaluation of Nigeria’s currency, the naira.

Two of the couple’s six children were smuggled into Italy several years ago.

They send back what they can, when they can, to help their parents build a new home. The current one threatens to fall down at any moment.

“I don’t know what kind of job she does but she’s the one who must worry for me,” says Grace.

More than 37 500 Nigerians arrived on the Italian coast by boat last year, according to the International Organisation for Migration. Most of them came from Benin City.

The city is riddled with human trafficking networks.

Often the Nigerian women who end up in Italy become sex workers, while men are pushed into Italian mafia networks around the trade.

The phenomenon can be traced back to the time of the region’s industrial collapse in the late 1980s, military rule and the structural adjustment programmes that killed the economy.

For nearly 30 years, Edo state, of which Benin City is the capital, has survived on the money sent back from across the Mediterranean.

Even small sums represent a real monthly salary for families - as long as the money is sent in foreign currency.

On the outskirts of the city, there are no roads, electricity or drainage, yet brick houses are mushrooming in the largely abandoned fields.

Emmanuel Otoide is building a large house for a client who left for Italy 10 years ago and has not come back.

On the walls, the owner’s mother has stuck a notice from her Pentecostal church, “2017 My Year of Greater Light”.

“The mother of the owner is (a) pure water seller, she is a street vendor,” the construction engineer says, adding that without the money from overseas, building the house would be impossible.

Behind him, workers dig the foundations of another house by hand, sweating in the suffocating heat, 10 hours a day, for 3 000 naira ($9.50).

The appearance of economic development because of migrants from Edo state is “fake and non-sustainable”, according to Kokunre Eghafona-Agbontaen, from the University of Benin City.

The money sent to often very poor and uneducated families is not invested in viable enterprises or to buy arable land to farm.

“The remittances are utilised on a personal and family basis, and there are no visible contributions to the development and transformation of the community,” she says.

What’s worse is that illegal migration has led to a fall in the level of education in Edo state, Eghafona-Agbontaen says.

Young people, convinced that their professional future will not be in Nigeria, now look to leave rather than continue their studies.

The deputy governor of Edo state, Philip Shaibu, agrees, saying parents would look for the “best agent to transfer them to Europe” in the same way they might look for a good school.

“Now children want to go on their own. That trend we want to stop.”

After years of political inaction, the new Edo state governor has promised to eradicate the “dangerous cartels” involved in human trafficking, and wants to reinvigorate industry and create 200 000 jobs.

It’s a huge challenge and unlikely to be achieved in a country where energy problems are a major brake on development.

But since last year, the EU has put pressure on source countries of illegal migrants - “soft diplomacy” according to Shaibu, who wants politicians to recognise the problem.

“We prefer to have our young ones being celebrated outside for skills that they learn in Nigeria” rather than drowning off the coast of Libya, he says.

“That we don’t want.” - AFP