SCARRED: Nosicelo Matiwane, of Cape Town, was abducted at the age of 18 to get married to an older man whom she had never met. She says because of that, her life will never be the same.  Picture Cindy Waxa Reporter Zodidi/Argus
SCARRED: Nosicelo Matiwane, of Cape Town, was abducted at the age of 18 to get married to an older man whom she had never met. She says because of that, her life will never be the same. Picture Cindy Waxa Reporter Zodidi/Argus
The Zimbabwean Constitutional Court has delivered a landmark ruling outlawing all marriages below the age of 18. This includes customary marriages.

Predictably, the move generated a great deal of comment and questions. There were even suggestions that the decision was the first of its kind in Africa.

Though inaccurate, the claim legitimately marks the issue as a regional and continental problem. Last year, Unicef released a report on child marriages which highlighted the scale of the problem.

The reasons for child marriage are complex and include the fact that in customary law, marriageable age was never reckoned as an actual number but depended on puberty, which indicated that the girl was now physically able to bear children.

The debate about the marriage of young girls has been raging for years in South Africa. It reached a new pitch after a visible spike in the abduction of girls, ostensibly for the purposes of customary marriage.

The perpetrators claim to be practising the custom of ukuthwala. Typically, these abductors force themselves sexually on girls as their “brides”. In some cases, the girls are as young as between 9 and 14.

Ukuthwala
is a form of abduction that involves kidnapping a girl or a young woman by a man and his friends or peers with the intention of compelling the girl or young woman's family to endorse marriage negotiations

In many cases, this is justified on the basis that some money or other material consideration has been paid to the parents. This is a vile distortion of the custom of ilobolo (dowry). Parents living in poverty are thus frequently complicit in this human rights violation.

Last year, in the case of Mvumeleni Jezile v The State, the Western Cape High Court confirmed a 22-year sentence of imprisonment against the adult abductor of a 14-year-old girl under the guise of the ukuthwala custom.

The accused had been charged with several crimes, including three counts of rape and one count of human trafficking, all of which the appeal tribunal upheld.

A further development last year was the publication by the South African Law Reform Commission of its Revised Discussion Paper on Project 138: The Practice of Ukuthwala. It contains a draft bill, tentatively titled the Prohibition of Forced Marriages and Child Marriages Bill, which is being taken around the country as part of a public consultation process.

The law commission is aiming for wide public engagements, particularly with government departments, police services, traditional leaders and rural communities.

It also wants to attract commentary from NGOs, other civil society organisations, as well as religious organisations, educators and ordinary citizens. It will then submit a report to the minister of justice in the hope that the cabinet will give approval for it to be passed into law.

The bill specifically criminalises forced marriages as well as child marriages. Both are already prohibited by the provisions of the Recognition of Customary Marriages Act.

The act has, since 1998, required not only that customary marriages be conducted only with the consent of the partners, but also that the parties should be at least 18 years old.

The bill lists the existing crimes of abduction, kidnapping, human trafficking, rape and assault as possible verdicts in such cases.

It also explicity strips protection away from these criminal actions that might be claimed under custom or culture practices. This points to the difficult issues in this debate. For many women’s rights activists, practices such as ukuthwala should be banned entirely as being inimical to human rights, particularly those of women and the girl child.

On the other hand, cultural activists make the point that the laws of the land are already adequate to target these crimes masquerading as custom.

They also say it seems arbitrary and discriminatory to treat crime in urban areas as such and suddenly call it “culture” when it occurs in rural areas.

This conflict is but the tip of the iceberg in a country deeply embroiled in acrimonious contestations between cultural rights and western law.

At the heart of the disputes is something more than a clash of cultures. Some serious misgivings are beginning to emerge about the lack of depth in the national debate about the complexities, sometimes quite intractable, of recognising and accommodating difference while promoting a single nationhood.

Unity in diversity is a nice slogan, but the ideal appears difficult to realise in practice. For every opponent of ukuthwala, there will be someone who will remind us that, in its earlier form and function, the practice could have been seen as a subversive avenue empowering youngsters to resist parental authoritarianism. In such cases, the parties were usually consenting lovers of marriageable age who had reason to defy parental expectations and where sex was not sanctioned.

Similarly, criminalisation by the state often ignores the complicity of family in times of abject poverty.

A significant obstacle to the reporting of these perversions is usually the reluctance of the victims to send their parents to jail.

Add to this toxic mix the emotions generated by different interpretations of the constitution, and it becomes clear that the law commission has its work cut out in attempting a solution without exacerbating already divisive fault lines. – The Conversation.


SCARRED: Nosicelo Matiwane, of Cape Town, was abducted at the age of 18 to get married to an older man whom she had never met. She says because of that, her life will never be the same. Picture Cindy Waxa Reporter Zodidi/Argus